The first and most important medical treatise, prepared in the Persian language. This work is authored by 'Esmaeil Jorjani' in 504 (1110 Gregorian Calendar). For centuries the Dhakhīra has been used as an authentic source in medical education. It has served as the basis of many books on Medicine. The treatise, which was translated into Arabic by its author, has been of great use in Iran, Central Asia, India and the Ottoman empire. The book has also been translated into Urdu, Turkish and Hebrew-an indication of the book's significance for other nations.