2016 GEM Report Background Papers

A global measure of digital and ICT literacy skills -  Australian Council for Educational Research (John Ainley, Wolfman Schulz and Julian Fraillon)

Addressing language of instruction issues in education: Recommendations for documenting progress - Carol Benson

Assessing the focus of national education financing policies on equity - Yulia Makarova

Assessment of adult numeracy skills - University of Haifa (Iddo Gal)

Conceptions and realities of lifelong learning - UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning

Developing a monitoring instrument to measure extracurricular and non-formal activities which promote Global Citizenship Education (GCED) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) - Bassel Akar

Education and the Sustainable Development Goals - International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Barakat et al)

Education as a key driver for Sustainable Development Goals: Case studies from India - Centre for Environment Education

Education, skills, and decent work in low and middle income countries: Trends and results from an adult skills survey - Garry Chua Kenn

Effective education and communication strategies to promote environmental engagement: The role of social-psychological mechanisms - Lisa Zaval and Francis James Cornwell

Formal and non-formal adult education opportunities for literacy and numeracy, and other skills for acquisition and retention: A 29-country review of the concepts, processes and structures of literacy provision and reporting - International Council for Adult Education

Gender equality and education in the Sustainable Development Goals - Rosie Peppin Vaughan

Global monitoring of GCED and ESD: Themes in school curricula - International Bureau of Education

ICT in education statistics: Shifting from regional reporting to global monitoring: Progress made, challenges encountered, and the way forward - UNESCO Institute for Statistics (Peter Wallet)

Indigenous knowledge and implications for the sustainable development agenda - Giorgia Magni

Integrated financial planning and SDG readiness in the education sector - Development Finance International (Jo Walker)

Integrated planning for education and development - Amlata Persaud

Measures of learning and teaching material availability and use in sub-Saharan Africa and other low income countries - Nicholas Read

Measuring of child development and learning - Abbie Raikes

Measures of quality through classroom observation for the Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from low-and-middle-income countries - RTI International

Measures that Matter: Learning Outcome Targets for Sustainable Development Goal 4 - An examination of national, regional and international learning assessments - Marlaine E. Lockheed

Monitoring cross-country performance in equality of access and affordability of tertiary education – a review of options - Dominic Orr

Non-cognitive skills: definitions, measurement and malleability - Kai Zhou

Non-formal and informal programs and activities that promote the acquisition of knowledge and skills in areas of Global Citizenship Education (GCED) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) - Ashley Stepanek Lockhart

Scholarships for students from developing countries: Establishing a global baseline - Institute of International Education

SDG Target 4b: A global measure of scholarships - Sandy Balfour

Spatial mapping for improved intra-urban education planning - Filiberto Viteri Chavez

The implications of greening industries on education systems and training policies in developing and advanced economies - Technopolis

The leapfrogging opportunity: Role of education in sustainable development and climate change mitigation - Centre for Environment Education (CEE Australia Incorporated)

Towards the development of an international module for assessing learning in Global Citizenship Education (GCE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD): A critical review of current measurement strategies - Bryony Hoskins

Urban environmental education in Latin America and the Caribbean - Diego Martino