Support of the Film Industry and Film Culture
The current law in relation to cinematography (Cinema Law of 1997, amended by Royal Decree-Law of 2015), states in its preamble its “absolute adaptation to the guiding objectives and principles of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of Diversity of Cultural Expressions of the UNESCO”. It regulates support measures for creation and development, production, distribution, conservation and promotion, in addition to other aspects, such as access to credit, use of new technologies and external promotion.
Cinematographic and the audiovisual arts are generally consiered to be substantive elements of cultural identity and diversity, in their twofold nature of creative manifestation and artistic expression, all in line with the provisions of article 6 of the 2005 Convention.
The key objectives of the measures are:
- To develop the creation, to increase the production and to promote the distribution of Spanish audiovisual products.
- To achieve a sufficient proportion of internal market that allows the maintenance of the whole industry of Spanish cinema.
- To improve the level of competence of companies and to encourage the application of new technologies.
- To enhance the outreach of cinematography and audiovisual Arts Spanish.
- To safeguard and promote Spanish film heritage.
ICAA's main activity is the design of cinematographic policy. To this end, various lines of aid are launched: grants for the amortization of films, for the production of short films and feature films, for the distribution of feature films and a series of European or Ibero-American short films, for the participation of Spanish films in film festivals and the holding of film festivals in Spain. These competences extend throughout Spanish territory, regardless of whether or not the Autonomous Communities have their own actions which include specific lines of aid.
The international dimension is met in a twofold manner: on the one hand, distribution aid makes it possible to achieve a balance in film origin, which otherwise could very possibly be dominated by the US industry. Although the recipients are Spanish distributors, the producers or rights holders participate in the benefits. Thanks to this policy, in 2014 (latest published data), of all the films exhibited in cinemas, 56.63% had their origin in the European Union. The other focus of attention is that of international co-productions, encouraged especially through coproduction and partnership agreements between the agencies in charge of cinematographic policies, both bilaterally as well as in multilateral forums. In 2014, in Spain, 216 feature films were produced, 42 of which were international co-productions.
The aforesaid measures were originally not established for compliance with the 2005 CDC; however, the latter was indeed taken very much into account in the various amendments. In the latest regulatory amendment, in 2015, a “Cultural Certificate” has been incorporated, issued by the Institute of Cinematography itself, and is a requisite to be able to obtain aid. In granting the certificate, it is taken into account that the film either “allows for a better knowledge of cultural, social, religious, ethnic, philosophical or anthropological diversity, or that it “is aimed specifically at children or young people
The results expected coincide with the above mentioned "Key objectives of the measure", developped through the described lines of aid and two other instruments. The first one is an indirect line of aid, through an agreement with an Official Credit Institute, which facilitates the lowering of interest on loans for film production. In addition, the ICAA is a founding member of a Reciprocal Guarantee Company, together with the Audiovisual Producers Rights Management Entity. The ICAA holds a 48% stake in the company. The funds are allocated to grant guarantees for project realization. Since the time of its founding, it has granted 240 million euros in guarantees.
In 2015, 50.22 million €.
In 2014, 61.80 million €
In 2013, 36.90 million €
The system of public aids is one of the pillars for the existence of the Spanish production. The results of the evaluation are mostly quantitative, and only take their meaning making a comparision between different periods.
As said, the aim of the complex aid system is to facilitate the creation, production, distribution and exhibition of films, that is, all of the elements which make up their value chain. Also taken into account is their contiribution to technological progress, economic development and job creation.
It is seen that in the absence of such aid, market economy laws would do away with activity in this sector, given that from an industrial perspective is quite fragil and highly fragmented.
In 2014 were produced 216 featured films, 42 of which were international co-production. This last are one of the focus of attention, encouraged especially through coproduction and partnership agreements between the agencies in charge of cinematographic policies, both bilaterally as well as in multilateral forums.
The ICAA's Yearbook includes all the figures regarding financing, exhibition of films (according of their countries of origin), box office, number of films exhibited and attendants distributed by regions, size and main features of the enterprises working in production, distribution and exhibition, international co-productions by countries etc...