The existing national regulations in Cuba, since the Constitution of the Republic of 1976 with reforms in 2002, and with an expansion of rights in the current Constitution approved in 2019, have endorsed that women and men enjoy equal rights in the economic, political, cultural, social and family fields.
The policies contained in the Updating of the Economic and Social Policy Guidelines for the period 2016-2021, approved by the Sixth Congress of the Cuban Communist Party in April 2016 and by the National Assembly of People's Power in July 2016, which implement gender equality are: Full exercise of women's equality; tax revenues, employment and salary; improvement of salaries, pensions and other income from work; education, health, culture and social security; demographic dynamics; gratuities and subsidies; cooperation; housing; social communication of the state and government and work system with directors, all with a gender-related approach in their management.
The Federation of Cuban Women (FMC), as a CSO that brings together more than 80 % of women over the age of 14, is a fundamental channel for exchange and feedback on gender issues, as well as for the identification of areas that require greater impetus in the development of policies and programs. Its congresses every 5 years and its annual National Plenary Sessions are a direct source as the government's interlocutor on issues related to women and their gender role, such as Gender Strategy, Gender Chairs, socio-cultural projects and workshops to develop equality capacities as a facilitator of the introduction in the public agenda, which have given them the authority to act and influence policies, laws and government decisions in all sectors of society.
In distributing information and involving citizens and other actors in the institutional processes and mechanisms needed to integrate the gender culture, actions have been developed to promote awareness of the gender approach.
The programs implemented by the Ministry of Culture have gathered an extensive experience in their application, with positive results that have contributed to developing a culture of gender equality in society, backed up by legislation.
The issue of recognition and defense of gender identity is an aspect applied as a principle of cross-sectoral policy in all dimensions of the Cultural Development Program until 2030.
The access and promotion of women to management positions is a key element in the management of the Ministry of Culture and its entities. The system of cultural institutions has a total of 1,054 management positions, of which 50 % are occupied by women, with a greater representation of 64.4 % at the ministerial level. In the case of other entities of the system and the business sector, the decision-making positions occupied by women represent 32% and 20%, respectively.
Work is being done systematically, with emphasis in recent years on the implementation of policies and measures that promote the access of women to management positions, a process that directly focuses on young women, who are incorporated into a purposeful system of professional preparation activities with an inclusive approach. This process is preceded, in the first place, by the identification of the potentialities and willingness shown among the artists, creators and businesswomen in the system.
A potential of 293 young people were identified in the organization to occupy managerial positions, of which 60 per cent are women. As a result, a training and improvement strategy was designed by the institutions of the cultural system, taking into account the work objectives of the Cultural Development Program and the needs for professional growth and management of the different entities.
Policies are encouraged in which the performance of women directors is recognized and valued in a positive way, such as the realization of an annual workshop called "Women Directors' Event" for the dissemination and exchange of work experiences, management methods and styles useful for the exercise of their responsibilities. There are also meetings of creative women where specialists, officials and artists participate in which, according to the call, topics such as leadership, communication strategies, women in the arts, among others, are evaluated.
In the Creative and Cultural Industries sector, in companies such as the Cuban Fund for Cultural Assets (FCBC), 30% of creators are women, many of them are graduated from art academies and members of the Cuban Association of Artists and Artisans. Likewise, the company has achieved that 61% of its workers are women, of which 54% have higher level qualifications.
For its part, the Empresa de Grabaciones y Ediciones Musicales (EGREM), the main record company in our country, has achieved remarkable results in the application of policies to promote the participation of women in its diverse business structure, with a view to strengthening the entity's comprehensive development processes. In this sense, 53% of women in management positions and 39% in senior management positions stand out.
The Artistic and Literary Promotion Company (ARTEX.SA) purposefully works in the fulfillment of these policies within the business sector. During this stage, 48% of the total 215 women in management positions were represented in branches, agencies and divisions of the organizational structure.
In the area of creation, women artists are widely represented in all manifestations of arts and culture. They enjoy equal access to training, creation and qualification processes in the arts and culture, with talent and ability being the only elements that define their insertion.
Among the examples that illustrate the accessibility of women to these processes, we can point out the representation of women creators in the National Registry of Audiovisual and Film Creators and in the total number of artists in the performing arts, accounting for 39% and 40%, respectively.
In the field of music, the incorporation of women artists and their full participation in cultural life is evident. They represent 30% - 6,005 - of the total of more than 20,000 musicians throughout the country.
On the other hand, women artisans represent 40% of the artists registered in the Cuban Association of Artists and Artisans, totaling more than 4,600 members.
In the community work carried out by the National Council of Culture Houses, the presence of women is noteworthy. Throughout the country, women represent 56% of the art teachers and instructors who serve at the local level. In the communities, different workshops of creation and appreciation are developed in which 30% of the participants are women.
The incorporation of women into the artistic units of the amateur movement represents 68% of the total of more than 23,000 groups of this type.
In the 375 community-based socio-cultural projects throughout the country, around 5,625 people participate as members of management groups, of which 3,750 are women.
On the other hand, in Cuba there is a system of prizes and awards in recognition of the work of creators in all areas of the arts and culture, organized from both the national to the institutional level. In the national awards, the participation of women is more representative in the literature sector, followed by the performing arts.
The Ministry of Culture awards the Distinction for National Culture to Cuban citizens and foreigners, for the merits achieved and the work they do for the enrichment of culture in the country. In recognition of their work, 133 women received this distinction between the years 2016-2019. Likewise, seven women were awarded the Alejo Carpentier Medal by the Council of State of the Republic, at the request of the Ministry of Culture.
Other awards at the institutional level show the development results of women's integration processes in the different manifestations of arts and culture.
The system of literary awards covers a total of 75 calls with 160 annual awards, of which 32 calls correspond to the Cuban Book Institute and the Provincial Centers of Book and Literature, totaling 101 awards. In the last four years, 640 creators have been awarded, among which women represent 54.35%.
On the other hand, in the context of the International Festival of New Latin American Cinema, there is a high participation of women creators in the different production specialties in this sector. The Coral Awards, an award granted by the region's film authorities at this event, have distinguished the work of 52 women in its annual editions between 2016 and 2019.
The Cubadisco International Fair, the most important event in this field organized by the Cuban Music Institute, has recognized the work of women musicians in all its editions. In 2018, for
example, the Cubadisco Grand Prize was awarded to Beatriz Marquez, the outstanding singer-songwriter Liuba Maria Hevia received the Special Extraordinary Prize for her 35-year-old recording and authorial work, and the Special Prize went to Omara Portuondo with her album entitled "Omara Siempre".
|Name of partner||Type of entity|
The Federation of Cuban Women
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
The National Trade Union of Cultural Workers
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
Continue promoting and disseminating the work of Cuban women artists in the different artistic manifestations, which are purposefully channeled, from the intersectionality, with a view to changing different inequalities that cause, in the world, gender violence and other violence, sexism, androcentric cultural patterns, public and private discriminations, among so many other manifestations of disparity that stop the respect to fundamental and full rights reached by the Cuban social project.
The capital built from resilience and conceived in their works reflects the concreteness in the actions carried out day by day in society to bring closer the opportunities, possibilities and equality in results, between women and men in the Cuban society. The contribution of Cuban artists and intellectuals in revealing the entanglements with claims, vindications and demands, between women and men, expresses the commitment and responsibility of creating a public art with social transcendence that contributes to social agendas and to the nation's project.