Policies and Measures that Support Digital Transformation of Cultural and Creative Industries

Ministry of Communication and Informatics
Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy/Tourism and Creative Economy Agency
Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs
Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs
The National Library of Indonesia
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 

Some Policies and Measures that Support Digital Transformation of Cultural and Creative Industries include:
1. Presidential Regulation 74 of 2017 on Road-map of Electronic-Based National Trading System (e-Commerce Road Map) of 2017-2019;
2. Minister of Communication and Informatics Regulation 15 of 2018 on the Indonesian Telecommunication Regulatory Authority;
3. Digitalization of the National Library's Collections;
4. Indonesian Culture Digital Library; and
5. Indonesia Creative Cities Network.

The Roadmap of the Electronic-Based National Trade System encourages the acceleration and development of electronic-based national trade systems (e-commerce), start-ups, business development, and logistical acceleration. The e-Commerce Roadmap includes funding, taxation, consumer protection, education and human resources programs. Then the communication infrastructure, logistics, cybersecurity, and the establishment of a coordinating function (in the form of steering and management committee) of the 2017-2019 e-Commerce Roadmap.

This Roadmap serves as a reference for the central and local governments to establish policies and to develop legal aspects, such as sectoral regulations, schemes or procedures and programs in the context of accelerating e-commerce effective, sustainable and inclusive growth. This roadmap contains eight issues as a reference for stakeholders to regulate the booming e-commerce industry. The key stakeholders consist of relevant government ministries, the private sectors, such as Indonesian Chamber of Commerce, Indonesia Logistics Association, Indonesia Venture Capital & Startup Association and Indonesia E-Commerce Association (IdEA), and others. They represent different sectors and have a different operating budget. Evaluating and making necessary changes is the task of the steering committee.

The Indonesian Telecommunication Regulatory Authority (BRTI) functions as a regulator of telecommunication operations in Indonesia. BRTI runs its tasks and functions through the Committee of Telecommunication Regulation, which consists of seven members. The appointment of five members of the committee from public figures and two members of the committee from the government manifests public participation. Also, by paying attention to the development of Information Technology, telematics convergence, and the needs of the community and stakeholders, the BRTI functions cover the improvements of broadcasting infrastructure and informatics applications. Regulations include the formulation and stipulation of provisions such as the development of broadcasting and multimedia digitalization, improvement of technology and information technology infrastructure; information technology empowerment, digital economy, and internet. BRTI was formed based on the provisions of Law 36 of 1999 concerning Telecommunications. BRTI, a part of the Ministry of Communication and Information of the Republic of Indonesia, consists of the Directorate General of Post and Information Technology, the Directorate General of Resources and Equipment of Post and Information Technology, the Directorate General of Information Applications, and the Telecommunications Regulatory Committee consisting of government and civil society elements.

On digitizing the national library collection, in 2016, the National Library of Indonesia launched a digital library networking portal to provide easier access to information. The portal currently provides over nine million records from 218 institutions, which include governments, schools, and universities. The public can access the service on onesearch.id.

The Indonesian Cultural Digital Library (PDBI) is a digital library that provides services to anyone interested in Indonesian culture. PDBI was initiated by the organization Sobat Budaya Foundation to serve as a space to inventory and preserve the wealth of Indonesian cultures. Sobat Budaya created a data-crowdsourcing mechanism for the public to participate. The digital library project, established in 2009, has three purposes: 1) establishing PDBI as one of the primary sources of information on Indonesian cultures; 2) preserving the knowledge of cultural heritage; and 3) examining how a data-crowdsourcing mechanism could contribute to this. The research used a qualitative approach with a case study method, collecting data by observation, interviews, and a literature review. The research found that: 1) PDBI collected significant cultural heritage data with over 15400 entries classified into 15 categories as per 2019; 2) there are nine preservation strategies; and 3) the data-crowdsourcing mechanism helped collect data from various regions.

The Indonesia Creative Cities Network (ICCN) is committed to realizing the 10 Principles of Creative Cities. ICCN currently includes 361 cities and regencies nationwide and connects cross-community forums and initiatives in Indonesia. Among the main features of the network are a collaboration among government, academia, community organizations, and businesses under the coordination of several Regional Coordinators who are members of the Central Board of ICCN. ICCN is committed to advancing creative cities in Indonesia through research and development to foster economic development. The engine for the advancement of creative cities is creative and innovative ideas supported by a complete institutional infrastructure through the involvement of penta-helix elements (bureaucracy, academics, business, community and media) and the support of quality and modern digital infrastructure.

This network was established at the second Indonesia Creative Cities Conference in 2015 and coined the declaration of the "10 Principles of Indonesian Creative Cities" to guide a notion of a creative city. The ten principles are compassion; inclusion; protecting human rights; honoring the creativity of all; sustainable and harmonious growth; using historical wisdom towards renewing better futures for all; well-managed cities rooted in civic participation; fulfilling the basic needs of its society; using renewable energy; providing adequate public facilities for all; including its most vulnerable and challenged; and optimally stimulating networking power to horizontal and vertical stakeholders.

A medium-term plan for the network until 2019 includes measures such as simultaneous self-assessment by all participating regencies and municipalities called the Indonesian Creative Regency/Municipality Independent Evaluation (PMK3I), with the support of the (former) Creative Economy Agency (Bekraf), by using the Kota Kreatif App. Kota Kreatif application is an application created to make it easy for creative actors to see profiles of creative regencies/municipalities in Indonesia, news and activities around Creative Cities. Through this application, we can also fill out the PMK3I forms.

About PMK3I
Bekraf through the Deputy for Infrastructure, built the "Indonesian Creative Economy System" to map the potential and challenges faced in developing the creative economy in the regions. The results of this mapping will be the primary reference in realizing the "National Creative Economy System" so that the direction of creative economic development can be maintained to achieve the targets set within the framework of economic, environmental, and social sustainability.

In 2019, ICCN mapped a formula as a solution for urban development oriented to local creativity based on experience and lessons learned from creative city initiatives in Indonesia and other countries. The formula is 11 Jurus Kota Kreatif Indonesia (11 Ways towards Indonesian Creative Cities) called "Catha Ekadaksa", namely: 1. Cross-Community Forum; 2. The Creative Economy (Ekraf) Committee; 3. Creative Ecosystems (ITERASATARI); 4. Navigating Development; 5. Interactive Forum for Development Planning (Design Action); 6. Creative City Index; 7. Command Center; 8. Communication & Narrative Strategy; 9. City Branding Management; 10. Community Festival; 11. Village X City Entrepreneur. The Catha Ekadaksa is in harmony with the Urban Agenda of 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which is a global consensus.

In general, policies and measures that support digital industry are intended to contribute to the following achievements of the National Strategy for Culture (see Goal 1, Main Policies and Measures that Contain Strategies and Frameworks for the Development of an Integrated Cultural and Creative Economy Sector):
1. Utilize advancement of culture objects to improve people welfare (Agenda 4).

What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 

Indonesia has launched the following measures:
1. Making Indonesia 4.0 (an integrated roadmap);
2. E-Commerce Roadmap;
3. Towards 100 Smart Cities ;
4. Smart City Index;
5. Indonesia OneSearch;
6. Kota Kreatif App;
7. Catha Ekadaksa: 11 Ways towards An Impactful Urban Creative Economy Ecosystem;
8. White Paper of Indonesian Creative City: An Ecosystem that Creates; and
9. INDISKOP Online Film Festival.

Two key initiatives for the development of digital potential in Indonesia include "Making Indonesia 4.0" and Towards 100 Smart Cities. "Making Indonesia 4.0" is an integrative roadmap that was launched in 2018 covering the main sectors/industries such as food and beverage, automotive electronics, chemicals, textiles, and garments. However, the diversity of cultural expressions has not received adequate attention. The completion of the Palapa Ring facilitates internet accessibility and supports digitalization plan. The Palapa Ring is a 36,000km fibre optic project in 440 cities and rural areas. Making Indonesia 4.0 encourages digital transformation projects and adoption of IoT (Internet of Things) in the industries as mentioned earlier.

The government, through the Ministry of Communication and Informatics, has initiated "Towards 100 Smart Cities" project aimed at integrating technology as part of the daily lives of citizens and improving the quality of their lives. Last year, twenty-five cities selected as pilot projects for the development of smart cities in various regions, including Smart Environment, Smart People, Mobility & Living, and Smart Economy. The government also issued a Smart City Index to encourage development. These are essential parts of Indonesia towards the "2020 Go Digital Vision." The Ministry of Communication and Informatics underlines the importance of HR development, which requires the involvement and cooperation of all stakeholders in the digital ecosystem including the business sector, students, academics, SMEs, and the wider community to realize the "2020 Go Digital Vision."

Stakeholders such as telecommunications companies and service providers have encouraged the establishment of a robust digital ecosystem through the "Internet of Things (IoT) and Future Digital Economy Lab". This Lab is a necessary effort to encourage innovation and progress in the field of the digital economy in Indonesia, which is made in collaboration with relevant industries to help realize digitalization plans and enhance human resource capabilities. Some related programs implemented by the Ministry of Communication and Informatics include Integrated Broadband Village, 1000 Digital Startups, Information Security.

The homepage of Indonesia One Search is onesearch.id. The portal currently provides up to nine million records from 218 institutions, including governments and universities. Indonesia One Search by National Library is a one-door search for all public collections from libraries, museums, archives, and electronic sources in Indonesia including songs and music.

Kota Kreatif Application is an application created to make it easy for creative actors to see profiles of creative regencies/municipalities in Indonesia, news and activities around Creative Cities. Through this application, we can also fill out the PMK3I forms.

ICCN runs the main program called Catha Ekadaksa: 11 Ways towards An Impactful Urban Creative Economy Ecosystem, that encourages active citizenship participation in co-creating their cities. The eleven ways accommodate any condition of Indonesian cities; whether in a dense urban setting, in remote rural areas, on groups of smaller islands, both mountainous and coastal areas, and others.

ICCN published the White Paper of Indonesian Creative City: An Ecosystem that Creates, which contains best practices of creative community initiatives in different cities. It also contains a simulation of the adaptation of the Ten Principles of Indonesian Creative City into government's Key Performance Index, in order to ensure the inclusion of creativity and culture in the development strategy.

Furthermore, ICCN currently develops a Creative City Index dashboard, based on Creative Economy Ecosystem, which aims to show the potentials and growth of a city, particularly its creative industries sectors. This dashboard will become a tool for municipalities to create policies and regulations, according to its creative economy evidence gained from the Index. It will also serve as a working tool for city leaders, especially in making decisions concerning collaboration programs and implementation of Catha Ekadaksa in order to raise the city's growth index.

ICCN's social and creative responses to the Covid-19 pandemic:
"Aksi Bersama Bantu Sesama" (Joint Action to Help Others) is collaborative ICCN network program during Covid-19 pandemic through Indonesia Creative Store (ICS), Learning Academy (AJAR), Assistance for Covid-19 Affected Communities (DAMPING), Accelerated Cross-Regional Community Business Efforts (Pulih), Rapid Reaction for Covid-19 Affected Community (RESCUE).

The 2020 INDISKOP Online Film Festival, a social and creative response to the Covid-19 pandemic:
INDISKOP community-based cinema collective launched the 2020 INDISKOP Online Film Festival on Wednesday, 24 June 2020. The festival, slated to run from 26 June to 26 August 2020, including film classes, screenings, film-making competitions, and talk shows. The film classes comprise training in storytelling, acting, directing, script-writing, producing, editing, film business and entrepreneurship, to help build the skills needed in the film industry. The people's cinema such as INDISKOP is a part of the film ecosystem, as well as part of the public space. Acting Head of the digital economy and creative products of the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Industry mentioned that 69 per cent of cinemas are still located in Java, and a digital film festival can answer this challenge.

The festival is a social and creative response to the Covid-19 pandemic. Everyone from any background without exception must be able to enjoy films as an artwork. INDISKOP also launched a mobile application as a means to screen films throughout the festival. The application contains a series of curated Indonesian films and short films to view. Research showed that young moviegoers in Indonesia preferred watching Indonesian Films but hampered by a lack of access. People expect that the festival can build optimism and spirit as a recovery medium along with its entertainment and education purposes. It is also a sharing medium. The film classes will donate the registration fee to beneficiaries, who are the pandemic affected people of the industry.

Partner(s) engaged in the implementation of the measure: 
Name of partnerType of entity
Coordinating Minister for the Economic Affairs
Public Sector
Coordinating Minister for the Political, Legal and Security Affairs
Public Sector
Minister of Communication and Information
Public Sector
Minister of Home Affairs
Public Sector
Minister of Finance
Public Sector
Minister of Trade
Public Sector
Minister of Industry
Public Sector
Minister of Cooperatives and Small and Medium Enterprises
Public Sector
Minister of Transportation
Public Sector
Governor of Bank Indonesia
Public Sector
Chair of the Board of Commissioners of the Financial Services Authority (OJK)
Public Sector
Indonesian Cyber Media Association (AMSI)
Public Sector
Indonesia Digital Business Ecosystem Forum (Indibest Forum)
Public Sector
Indonesia Venture Capital and Startup Association
Public Sector
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
If yes, what are the main conclusions/recommendations?: 

The government is aware that some policies are no longer relevant and face several challenges. Then there are four new policies: data protection; cross border transactions; digital goods and services; and strengthening the competitiveness of local products and Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). Some policies take the form of outcomes that cannot be directly executed, such as the e-commerce curriculum. Presidential regulation mandates curriculum implementation, but curriculum development is facing a challenge, such as workforce qualifications are difficult to structure and lack of teaching staff.

Based on the evaluation, the Ministries and Agencies involved interpret the implementation of Presidential Regulation 74 of 2017 differently. As a result, it is difficult to make an agreement on the final form of output and to ensure that its implementation can proceed. Moreover, the Presidential Regulation is short term, in the form of a to-do list. There is no macro strategy, so there is no visible starting position, stages, and final destination. The government will issue new rules containing the four proposals. One of them is Draft Government Regulation (RPP) concerning e-commerce with three focus subjects. First, general provisions; the scope of regulation and principle; implementers; requirements; operational implementation; e-commerce business actors; and proof. Second, business processes that include electronic advertising; electronic offers, acceptance, and confirmation; electronic contract; protection of personal data; payment; delivery of goods and services; exchange and or cancellation of purchases. Finally, it contains other provisions such as dispute resolution; guidance and supervision; penalty; amendment and closing provisions.

Objetivo(s) de la Convención 2005 de la UNESCO
Cultural Domain(s)
Prioridades transversales
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