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Accessing cultural diversity through media support and public service
Dónde
Dinamarca
Cuándo
2016
Quién
Descubra más sobre esta práctica innovadora

En Dinamarca, la política en materia de medios de comunicación se considera parte integrante de la política cultural. Un acuerdo entre el Gobierno y el Parlamento sobre la política en materia de medios de comunicación, generalmente cuadrienal, constituye la base jurídica para los sectores de la radio, la televisión y los medios de comunicación impresos y digitales.

 

Uno de los fundamentos de la política danesa en materia de medios de comunicación es la noción de servicio público. Por ende, los medios de comunicación del sector público contribuyen a garantizar el pluralismo a través de múltiples dispositivos, tanto en el plano nacional como regional, y a abarcar una gama equilibrada de programas y servicios para todos los grupos de la sociedad.

La política en materia de medios de comunicación pretende fortalecer la democracia danesa y sienta las bases de un panorama mediático diverso que favorece el acceso a una diversidad de expresiones culturales. En este sentido, se creó una Reserva del Servicio Público con miras a responder a las necesidades de las instituciones no cubiertas por derechos de licencia, ofreciéndoles la oportunidad de solicitar financiación para programas y producciones a condición de que cumplan con los objetivos del servicio público (originalidad, pertinencia y calidad).

Asimismo, se han abordado los desafíos que representan las tecnologías digitales. Las transformaciones en la creación, producción y distribución de contenidos culturales en la era digital implican que se ha de brindar el mismo nivel de apoyo a los medios informativos escritos basados en Internet que a los medios de comunicación tradicionales. En virtud de la ley revisada en materia de apoyo a los medios de comunicación que entró en vigor en 2014 (Media Support Act), los medios de comunicación por Internet se consideran ahora admisibles para ser objeto de acuerdos de financiación garantizada. Las ayudas a los medios de comunicación se conceden, tomando como base un conjunto de criterios, para la producción de contenido editorial y para el establecimiento de nuevos medios de comunicación. La protección contra injerencias arbitrarias queda también garantizada por un consejo independiente.

El establecimiento de una amplia base legislativa para respaldar la libertad y diversidad de los medios de comunicación y responder a las necesidades de todos los grupos de la sociedad atestigua el compromiso de Dinamarca para con la aplicación del objetivo 1 de la Convención, sobre el apoyo a sistemas sostenibles de gobernanza cultural, así como del ODS 16, mediante la garantía del acceso público a la información y de la protección de las libertades fundamentales (meta 16.7).

Objetivos clave de la medida:

As stated in the Danish QPR of 2012, media policy is regarded as an integral part of Danish cultural policy due to the societal significance of the mass media for the development of Danish culture and political debate. A media policy agreement (“mediepolitisk aftale”) between the government and one or more parties in the Parliament, usually spanning four years, form the basis for legislation in the area of radio, television and public service.Grants for media includes for example:

  • printed and internet based news media (see elaboration of the new Media Support Act in sec. 1.4.1),
  • non-commercial local radio and television (i.e. to civil society), including support for training/education based on statutory objective criteria. The schemes are administered by an independent board, the Radio and Television Board.
  • distribution of periodic magazines and journals, primarily union journals through the Magazine Fund (“Bladpuljen”), which was established in 2004 with the purpose of promoting democratic debate as well as cultural and societal enlightenment.

A cornerstone of the media policy is the notion of public service, which seeks to address the need for a versatile and balanced range of programmes and services for all parts of the population. Therefore, public service activity in Denmark seeks to ensure that the entire Danish population has access to a wide range of programmes and services via media channels such as television, radio, and the internet. The Danish public service institutions include DR, TV2 Danmark, TV2 Regions and Radio 24syv, which all help to ensure pluralism in both radio and television, national and regional, to the entire population on multiple platforms. Further, the “Public Service Pool” (“Public Service Puljen”) provides the opportunity for other instituions not covered by license fees to apply for funding for programs and productions, which meet the requirements of the public service objectives (originality, significance and quality).

Alcance de la medida:
Local, Regional, National
Naturaleza de la medida:
legislative, regulatory, financial, institutional
Característica principal de la medida:

Example: Media Support Act granting support to internet based news media

The revised Media Support Act entered into force on 1 January 2014. Media support is the collective term for the Ministry of Culture subsidies for printed news media and the written internet-based news media. The key objective of media support is to promote a comprehensive and diverse range of news of social and cultural nature aimed at strengthening the Danish democracy and the democratic debate. Based on objective criteria, media support is granted for the production of editorial content for a wide range of print media. With the new Act, internet media is also considered eligible for media support. Additionally, media support can be granted in order to establish new media. To this end, the overall Danish media support scheme serves to promote and lay the foundation for a diverse media landscape. The scheme is administered by an independent board. [...]

Resultados esperados a través de la implementación de la medida:

1.1.1        DR as an example of accessing cultural diversity through public service media

DR (Danish Broadcasting Corporation) is the biggest provider of public service in the Danish media market, and is organised as an independent public institution financed through license fees. In the cultural field, DR has to place a special emphasis on its role as initiator and communicator of Danish art and culture and the Danish cultural heritage; enrich the cultural life in Denmark with original contents; place a special emphasis on the Danish language and actively contribute to preserving and developing the Danish language so the listeners, viewers and users experience accurate and intelligible Danish in DR’s activities. Further, DR has an obligation to offer a broad coverage of the Danish society as well as of the societies of Greenland and the Faroe Islands, and to reflect the diversity of culture, philosophies of life and living conditions in the different parts of Denmark. On TV, cultural contents is a constituent element in a number of regular programs on the main channel DR1, for instance in the News and in the daily journalistic current events program “Aftenshowet”. The downright culture programs are primarily broadcasted on DR’s specialized channels, DR2 and DRK, which encompasses different approaches to culture and both provide insight and create debate about the arts and music. While DR3, a specialized channel for younger audiences, has a strong profile on music. Examples of main TV initiatives in 2015 includes the second season of the successful drama series “Arvingerne” (The Legacy” and the competition “Danmarks nye julesang” (‘Denmark’s new Christmas Carol’), where amateur and professional songwriters composed approximately 500 new Christmas songs. On the radio, DR’s portfolio of FM and digital radio channels ensure a wide communication of culture and music contents within all genres.

Recursos financieros asignados para implementar la medida:

[...] In the musical field, DR is also involved in the creation and promotion of music through its ensembles. These ensembles consist of the orchestras: DR Symfoniorkesteret, DR Big Bandet, and the choirs: DR Koncertkoret, DR VokalEnsemblet and DR Pigekoret. Besides, DR Musikariet offers a number of activities in the musical field that are especially directed at children and young people. In 2015, more than 55.000 children participated in approximately 80 activities, either in the DR Concert Hall or in schools and venues around the country.

ODS
Objetivo(s) de la Convención 2005 de la UNESCO
Dominio(s) cultural(es)
Cine / Artes audiovisuales
Medios de comunicación
Industria editorial
Cadena de valor cultural
Creación
Producción
Distribución
Participación