Quadrennial Periodic Report
Estonia 2021

Quadrennial Periodic Report - - 03/01/2021 - 14:23

General Information

Technical Information

Name of Party: 
Estonia
Date of Ratification: 
2006
Officially Designated Point of Contact of the Convention: 

QPR Stakeholder

Title: 
Ms.
Address: 
Anu-Maaja Pallok
Ministry of Culture
Suur-Karja 23, 15076 Tallinn, ESTONIA
15076 Tallinn Harjumaa
Estonia
Phone Number: 
+3726282222
Email: 
anu-maaja.pallok@kul.ee
min@kul.ee
Describe the multi-stakeholder consultation process established for the preparation of this report, including consultations with relevant ministries, public institutions, local governments and civil society organizations.: 

During the preparation of the report, Ministry of Culture consulted with Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Estonian National Commission for UNESCO, Statistics Estonia and NGO Mondo, who are the main partners for gathering and alalysing the information. A lot of information is available also online.

Executive summary: 

Since the ratification of the Convention in 2006, Estonia has been implementing its principles through different national policies, strategies and Action Programs of the Government. There are no separate action plans or measures for implementing the Convention, but many measures and initiatives contribute to its goals.

In 2014 “The general principles of cultural policy until 2020” (Culture 2020) were adopted by the parliament. Principles of the Convention provided framework for structured policy discussions and became impeded into all levels of the policy. Furthermore, the UNESCO value chain that captures all of the different phases of the creation, production, and dissemination of culture, has been helpful tool to describe the culture as resulting from associated sets of processes and determine accordingly the needs and interventions in the cultural and creative sectors.

Culture 2020 as the policy background document on culture contains the principles of how the cultural policy is formed and implemented and what are the priorities by each field. It contains three different frameworks or viewpoints. First is the horizontal level that addresses the wider field of culture and refers strongly to principles of the Convention (Creation – Production – Dissemination and Distribution – Access value chain, the essence of cultural diversity etc.). The horizontal level also contains postulations about centralization or decentralization, the growing role of the third sector and communities, transparent financial mechanisms, intellectual property etc. The second group of directions addresses different policy areas that are dependent on the developments in cultural sphere. These discussions analyze the cultural impacts in sustainable development, education, economy, regional developments, foreign affairs etc. The idea of these postulations is to make cultural policies more visible and explain the wider value of cultural richness and creativity. The third part describes general trends and factors in every subsector (arts, heritage, and cultural diversity). Culture 2020 also draws on the national strategy for Estonia's sustainable development "Sustainable Estonia 21" which states four main goals and the first goal is the viability of Estonian cultural space.

Development of cultural and creative industries is a part of "Estonian Entrepreneurship Growth Strategy 2014-2020" which is the most important strategic document on the Estonian economy for the years 2014-2020. Strategy focuses on three main challenges in order to increase the wealth of Estonia: increasing productivity, stimulating entrepreneurship and encouraging innovation. In drawing up the strategy, Estonian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication consulted extensively with partners from public as well as private sector and nonprofit bodies, including from cultural and creative sector. As a result, the development of creative industries became a part of the strategy under the section of competitive position.

Monitoring and reporting process of the implementation of the Convention on national level is rather complicated. First, it is difficult to assess and measure the evolution of the diversity of cultural expressions in Estonia because of the lack of relevant statistical tools and databases. Second, national policies, strategies and action programs do not set specific targets related to the Convention. Core principles and concepts of the Convention (i.e. diversity, cultural expressions) are better understood in the context of national policies and strategies. Therefore, there is a potential for capacity building and awareness raising for making the implementation of the Convention through national policies more flexible and visible.

Contact details of the stakeholders involved in the preparation of the quadrennial periodic report (QPR). Please also include the contact details of the civil society organizations (CSOs) if they have contributed to the QPR drafting, including through the CSO form.: 
Organization typeOrganizationEmailWebsite
Public Sector
Estonian National Commission for UNESCO
unesco@unesco.ee

Goal 1 - Support Sustainable Systems of Governance for Culture

Cultural and Creative Sectors

A Ministry (or agency with ministerial status) is responsible for cultural and creative sectors: 
YES
Regional, provincial or local governments or administrations have decentralised responsibilities for policies and measures promoting the cultural and creative sectors:: 
YES
Regulatory frameworks and sector specific laws, policies and/or strategies supporting the cultural and creative industries have been revised or adopted during the last 4 years: 
YES
If YES, has at least one of them been designed through interministerial cooperation (involving different government departments responsible for policy areas, such as communication, education, ICT, trade, foreign affairs, labor, finance): 
YES
Specific education and training programmes in the arts and the cultural and creative sectors are established, including: 
Digital literacy programmes for creation and experimentation
Technical and vocational education and training programmes in
Cinema/Audiovisual arts
Digital cultural and creative sectors
Music
Visual arts
Tertiary and university education degrees in
Cinema/audiovisual arts
Cultural management
Design
Digital cultural and creative sectors
Media arts
Music
Performing arts
Publishing
Visual arts
Specific measures and programmes have been implemented over the last 4 years to: 
Support job creation in the cultural and creative sectors
Encourage the formalization and growth of micro/small and medium-sized cultural enterprises
Statistical offices or research bodies have produced data during the last 4 years: 
related to cultural and creative sectors
Share of cultural and creative sectors in Gross Domestic Product (GDP): 
2.90%
2015
Share of employment in the cultural and creative sectors: 
4.30%
2019
Please provide whenever possible disaggregated data by sector, age, sex and type of employment: 
Please see Annex 1: QUESTIONNAIRE ON CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS (Estonia 2019)
Total public budget for culture (in USD): 
289,227,720USD
2018
Please provide whenever possible the share allocated by cultural sectors/domains (in %): 
Please see Annex 2: Culture Budget 2018
Relevant Policies and Measures: 

Supporting CCS through the Cultural Endowment of Estonia

Name of agency responsible for the implementation of the policy/measure: 
Cultural Endowment of Estonia
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
The Cultural Endowment of Estonia is a legal person governed by public law with the objective to support arts, folk culture, physical fitness and sport. It also funds the construction and renovation of cultural buildings. The basis of the activity of the Cultural Endowment of Estonia is the Cultural Endowment of Estonia Act, which was passed on 1 June 1994 and entered into force on 1 July 1994. The function of the Cultural Endowment is to support: • projects which promote, introduce and popularize the arts, folk culture, physical fitness and sport • artistic associations • research related to culture and sport • the commemoration of deceased figures in the arts and sports • talented persons with development potential in various areas of culture and sport and to facilitate their individual development • outstanding figures in the arts and sport (lifetime achievement support), and their families upon their death • the construction and renovation of cultural buildings which are of national importance The structure of the Cultural Endowment of Estonia includes eight endowments and fifteen county expert groups. An endowment is a structural unit of the Cultural Endowment with the function to distribute financial support allocated by the supervisory board of the Cultural Endowment to a specific area. Funds are distributed through application rounds or based on the endowments’ initiative. The activities are organized by an endowment panel consisting of seven persons who are active in the corresponding area of culture and who are nominated by organizations of this area of culture. The Minister of Culture approves the membership of an endowment panel. The term of authority of a panel is two years and one person may belong to two consecutive memberships of a panel. A county expert group is a structural unit of the Cultural Endowment, which acts in every county of Estonia with the function to distribute financial support allocated by the supervisory board of the Cultural Endowment to the areas of culture within the county. Funds are distributed through application rounds or based on the expert groups’ initiative. An expert group consists of five members that are persons active in the cultural field on the county level, the supervisory board of the Cultural Endowment approves the membership for two years. One person may belong to two consecutive memberships of an expert group. Income of the Cultural Endowment is formed of: • proceeds in the state budget from the excise duty on alcohol and tobacco 3.5% • proceeds in the state budget from gambling tax 46% (whereof 63% is allocated to finance cultural buildings which are of national importance and 37% is allocated to award grants and support and for administrative expenses) • property donations and bequests made in favor of the Cultural Endowment • income received from investment of the assets of the Cultural Endowment • income from other economic activities
Does it specifically target young people?: 
NO
Does the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) support the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
NO
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
The Cultural Endowment of Estonia contributes, with area-specific knowledge and flexible decision methods, to the variety and continuity of the areas of culture and sport. More than 15 000 applications are submitted yearly and due to limited budget, approximately 65-67% of them get financial support.
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
2016: 30 854 627 USD (25 940 465 EUR) 2017: 33 079 349 USD (27 810 860 EUR) 2018: 64 643 459 USD (54 347 810 EUR) 2019: 58 184 212 USD (48 917 316 EUR)
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
YES
If yes, what are the main conclusions/recommendations?: 
In 2018, socio-economic research center Praxis analyzed the funding practices of Cultural Endowment of Estonia in order to identify the differences of granting practices between endowments and county expert groups, how the practices have changed during 2011-2017 and what are the funding priorities. It was concluded that Cultural Endowment of Estonia plays very important role in funding the cultural domains, although there are also smaller alternative supporters (i.e. local authorities and initiatives) with very limited budgets and they are not dealing with systematic development. The analysis shows that most applications are submitted and funded in the folk culture endowment, but the higher amounts of support are in the sports and physical education endowment. It is more likely to receive support from the folk culture endowment and least likely from the sports endowment. The priorities for support have not changed much during the period 2011-2017. There is a formal link between funding priorities stated in financing rules of the endowments and development priorities arising from the national strategic documents. In both cases, the objectives and priorities are formulated in a relatively general way. There is a need for establishing central information system that covers all of the support allocated to cultural domains. It would allow monitoring and analyzing the total public contribution to culture by domains, financiers, beneficiaries, objectives, activities, etc. It was also concluded that in order to keep the project-based focus, larger cultural institutions should receive support for their operating costs from other sources.
Partner(s) engaged in the implementation of the measure: 
Name of partner: 
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Estonia
Type of entity: 
Public Sector

Development of Cultural and Creative Industries

Name of agency responsible for the implementation of the policy/measure: 
Enterprise Estonia
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
Development of cultural and creative industries (CCI) became a part of the "Estonian Entrepreneurship Growth Strategy 2014-2020" under the section of competitive position. It is stated in the strategy that before taking into account the potential of this sector, one should be aware of the fact that the number of companies operating in the field of CCI is small among the startup companies – too many good ideas never find their way to business. The existing companies are usually either micro- or small companies, who are unable or lack initiative to grow. The sector lacks opportunities for product development and creating innovative solutions. The domestic market is small and the weak export capacity does not allow entering and staying in foreign markets. Entrepreneurs outside the creative circles do not know much about the possibilities of CCI and often the benefit that could be created in cooperation is overlooked. Due to its innovative approach, CCI have a great potential to create added value for the rest of the economy. Therefore, it is important to facilitate the development of CCI and to connect it with the rest of the economy. The development of CCI is based on three pillars: raising awareness and offering training, supporting startups and their incubation period, supporting development of export capacities. Companies who need a range of services and special environment for comprehensive development have opportunity to operate in creative incubators. Companies with growth potential receive sectoral services in order to help them to carry out their product and service development and marketing activities in order to enter foreign markets. Special measures are designed to increase exports and use all of the potential of CCI to operate successfully in foreign markets and to increase the value added of creative companies. Creative Industries Development measure focuses on following aspects: • supporting incubators, business accelerators and CCI development centers; • increasing the export capacity of CCI enterprises; • initiating joint development projects between CCI and other sectors’ enterprises; • developing the CCI infrastructure and technological capacity; • increasing awareness about creative economy and developing entrepreneurial knowledge and skills. The aim of the measure is to bind the potential of cultural and creative sector with entrepreneurship in order to increase the number of new enterprises with ambitious business models in CCI, increase the export potential and capability of enterprises in CCI, and make CCI enterprises to create added value for other sectors by developing business models, products and services, marketing and sales.
Does it specifically target young people?: 
NO
Does the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) support the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
NO
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
Implementation of the CCI development measure has been constantly monitored in order to make relevant adaptions for achieving the results and impact. More than 2 300 companies operating in CCI have received financial or non-financial support, 45 companies have started to export, 40 companies have entered new export markets and 90 companies have expanded their activities in existing export markets. As a result, the number of exporters in CCI has grown and income generated from different foreign markets has increased. Companies operating in other sectors are still rather passive to involve CCI companies in order to increase their value added. CCI companies have not used their full potential to contribute to the regional development and to focus on cultural and creative crossovers to stimulate innovation, economic sustainability and social inclusion. In order to assess the economic situation in cultural and creative sectors and the impact of the measures, regular studies are carried out at four-year intervals. Next study will be conducted during 2021 and it will provide the information also about the total number of exporting companies in the sector, value added per employee in CCI companies, income per company in CCI compared to the average in Estonia, and income per employee in CCI companies compared to the average in Estonia.
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
Total budget allocated for the period 2014-2020 is 20 million Euros (23,6 million USD) and the measure is financed from the European Regional Development Fund.
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
YES
If yes, what are the main conclusions/recommendations?: 
In 2019-2020 Tallinn Technical University (TalTech) and Tartu University evaluated the effectiveness of entrepreneurship and innovation support (including CCI development measure) in the Operational Programme for Cohesion Policy Funds 2014-2020. The overall objective was to determine whether the support provided during the period of 2014-2018 corresponded to the needs and expectations. The result of the evaluation was an independent assessment of the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, reciprocal and combined impact. Also, the sustainability of the entrepreneurship support and a determination of how entrepreneurship support funded from structural funds has influenced productivity, export, employment, education cooperation between education and research institutions and companies and regional economic development in Estonia was assessed. In addition, the functioning of the implementation system was evaluated and proposals were made for increasing the efficiency of the system in the current and following EU funding period. It was concluded that combining financial support and subsidized services in CCI development amplifies the results. The implementation of CCI development measure has contributed to increase of productivity and has had a positive influence on the value-added and/or turnover per employee. Supported projects and activities were also seen to have a positive influence on equity capital and total assets. Export capacity development activities have increased CCI export capability: on average, export revenue increased in the case of every other company that responded to the survey. A total of 68% of the companies that participated in the survey used the support to launch export and 85% for exporting to new destination markets. A positive shift in growth of export capability of beneficiaries was also noted by representatives of CCI development support structures (i.e. incubators, accelerators, competence centers), where the scope of the international network has expanded. Most projects or actions funded are not aimed at closer cooperation between CCI and R&D institutions or the public sector. Cooperation is still taking place mainly between CCI companies and to a certain extent, with other economic sectors. Synergy with other fields has been created by Enterprise Estonia, business accelerators, development and competence centers and mainly in the field of architecture, audiovisual and content creation. In the regional perspective, the impact of the CCI development support was rather small as the predominant part of the recipients are located in or nearby capital or in the biggest towns.
Partner(s) engaged in the implementation of the measure: 
Name of partner: 
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Estonia
Type of entity: 
Public Sector
Name of partner: 
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication of the Republic of Estonia
Type of entity: 
Public Sector
Name of partner: 
Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Estonia
Type of entity: 
Public Sector

Media Diversity

Public service media has a legal or statutory remit to promote a diversity of cultural expressions: 
YES
Policies and measures promote content diversity in programming by supporting: 
Linguistic diversity in media programming
Socio-cultural programming (e.g. children, youth, people with disabilities, etc.)
Domestic content regulations for audio-visual media exist (e.g. quotas for production or distribution requirements for national films, TV series or music on radio): 
YES
Regulatory authority(ies) monitoring media exist: 
YES
If YES, please provide the name and year of establishment of the regulatory authority(ies): 
The Consumer Protection and Technical Regulatory Authority, established in 2019 by merging Consumer Protection Board and Technical Regulatory Authority.
If YES, these regulatory authority(ies) monitor: 
Public media
Private sector media
If YES, these regulatory authority(ies) are responsible for: 
Issuing licenses to broadcasters, content providers, platforms
Monitoring cultural (including linguistic) obligations
Relevant Policies and Measures: 
-

Entorno digital

Policies, measures or mechanisms are in place to support the digital transformation of cultural and creative industries and institutions (e.g. funding for digitization of analogue industries): 
YES
Policies or measures have been introduced to ensure vibrant domestic digital cultural and creative industries markets with a diversity of e-players of all sizes (e.g. fair remuneration rules; control market concentration; prevention of monopolies of digital content providers/distributors or their algorithms that potentially restrict the diversity of cultural expressions, etc.):: 
NO
Policies and measures have been implemented to enhance access to and discoverability of domestically produced cultural content in the digital environment (e.g. action plans or policies for digital content pluralism, public support to cultural or artistic portals in specific languages, national or regional online distribution platforms for domestic content, etc.): 
YES
Measures and initiatives have been implemented to promote digital creativity and competencies of artists and other cultural professionals working with new technologies (e.g. spaces for experimentation, incubators, etc.): 
YES
Statistics or studies with recent data on access to digital media, including on the type of cultural content available through digital media, are available: 
NO
Relevant Policies and Measures: 

Action Plan for the Digitization of Cultural Heritage 2018–2023

Name of agency responsible for the implementation of the policy/measure: 
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Estonia
Cultural domains covered by the policy/measure: 
Cine / Artes audiovisuales
Diseño
Industria editorial
Artes visuales
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
Estonian memory institutions have been digitising cultural heritage for more than 20 years. Until the Action Plan for the Digitization of Cultural Heritage 2018–2023 was drawn up, it was mostly done according to the needs of the memory institution or its users. There are over 900 million objects that are significant for Estonian culture and deserve digitisation. However, only ca 10% was digitized by 2018. At the same time, the percentage of digitised heritage differs by type, for example, almost a third of the sound collections are already available digitally, but only 1.5% of the documentary heritage. This action plan was initiated by the Digital Heritage Council, who determined the project’s priority fields. The action plan was created in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and Research and Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications. The main objective of the action plan is the resource-efficient digitization of a critical mass of the cultural heritage, as well preserving it and making it publicly available. The sub-objectives of the action plan are: • make up to one third of the cultural heritage of Estonia’s memory institutions available digitally; • develop a consolidated architecture and service for the archiving of digital cultural heritage, its long-term storage and backup; • make the information of 1,2 million cultural heritage objects available as open data; • increase knowledge about digitized cultural heritage in memory institutions, partner organisations and among young people; • in cooperation with partners, create opportunities for the active reuse and processing of digitized cultural heritage in the private sector; • increase public awareness and satisfaction with online services in the cultural field. There are 25 projects in the action plan of which 13 are digitization projects. All the projects can be categorised under seven activities: • legislation; • standardisation; • inclusion; • digitizing; • development; • infrastructure; • notification
Does it specifically target young people?: 
YES
Does the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) support the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
NO
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
As a result of the project, combined with the materials previously digitised by memory institutions, the following percentages of the material in memory institutions will be digitised by 2023: documental heritage 3%; object heritage 32%; film heritage 60%; photo heritage 60%; art heritage 55%; and printed heritage 28%. This will ensure the necessary digitised content for the effective use of heritage and operation of memory institutions’ e-services. The cultural heritage objects, which are no longer protected by copyrights, or for which licensing agreements have been concluded with the authors, are made available free through sectoral or institutional portals. There are also discussions about developing a Digital Cultural Heritage Access Information System. The direct beneficiaries of the action plan will be all memory institutions (archives, museums, libraries – about 1,000 institutions), as well as those who are familiar with their collections. Others who will benefit include the developers of educational and cultural online services, Estonian open data community, Estonian computer-literate adult population as well as Estonian media companies; and more broadly, interest groups abroad who use cultural heritage, Estonians who live abroad or people who are connected to Estonia.
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
The total cost for implementing the action plan is 10,83 million USD (9,18 million EUR) for the period of 5,5 years, of which 9,78 million USD (8,29 million EUR) comes from European Regional Development Fund.
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
NO
Partner(s) engaged in the implementation of the measure: 
Name of partner: 
Estonian National Archives (leading the documents, photos and films digitization projects)
Type of entity: 
Public Sector
Name of partner: 
Estonian Literary Museum (leading the printed materials digitization project)
Type of entity: 
Public Sector
Name of partner: 
Estonian National Museum (leading the museum artefacts digitization)
Type of entity: 
Public Sector
Name of partner: 
Art Museum of Estonia (leading the digitization of art)
Type of entity: 
Public Sector

Development of Cultural and Creative Industries

Name of agency responsible for the implementation of the policy/measure: 
Enterprise Estonia
Cultural domains covered by the policy/measure: 
Cine / Artes audiovisuales
Diseño
Medios de comunicación
Música
Las artes escénicas
Industria editorial
Artes visuales
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
Please see the description under Goal 1 "Cultural and Creative Sectors"
Does it specifically target young people?: 
NO
Does the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) support the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
NO
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
Please see the description under Goal 1 "Cultural and Creative Sectors"
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
Please see the description under Goal 1 "Cultural and Creative Sectors"
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
YES
If yes, what are the main conclusions/recommendations?: 
Please see the description under Goal 1 "Cultural and Creative Sectors"
Partner(s) engaged in the implementation of the measure: 
Name of partner: 
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Estonia
Type of entity: 
Public Sector
Name of partner: 
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication of the Republic of Estonia
Type of entity: 
Public Sector
Name of partner: 
Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Estonia
Type of entity: 
Public Sector

Partnering with Civil Society

Professional organizations and/or trade unions representing artists and/or cultural professionals in the following sectors exist in your country (i.e. federation of musicians, publishers unions, etc.): 
Cinema/Audiovisual arts
Design
Media Arts
Music
Publishing
Visual Arts
Performing Arts
Public funding schemes supporting CSOs involvement in promoting the diversity of cultural expressions exist: 
YES
Training and mentoring opportunities were organized or supported by public authorities during the last 4 years to build skills on communication, advocacy and/or fundraising of civil society organizations involved in the promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions: 
YES
Dialogue mechanisms between public authorities and CSOs for cultural policy making and/or monitoring have been implemented during the last 4 years (meetings, working groups, etc.): 
YES
If YES, please provide up to 2 examples: 
Ministry of Culture holds regular meetings with Estonian Chamber of Culture in order to discuss current topics and forward-looking issues. Until the end of 2018 these meetings took place every month, since 2019 there are quarterly meetings with the Minister and advisers. Estonian Chamber of Culture unites legal and private persons with a creative background or interests, whose wish is to maintain and improve the inner strength of Estonian culture and social discourse.
Representatives of creative unions and professional associations are always involved in policy-making and law-making working groups.
Policies and measures promoting the diversity of cultural expressions have been elaborated in consultation with CSOs during the last 4 years: 
YES
Relevant Policies and Measures: 
-

Goal 2 - Achieve a Balanced Flow of Cultural Goods and Services and Increase the Mobility of Artists and Cultural Professionals

Mobility of Artists and Cultural Professionals

Please indicate if the following policies and measures exist in your country: 
Policies and measures supporting the outward mobility of artists and cultural professionals (e.g. export offices, support for participation in international cultural markets for cultural professionals, etc.)
Work permit regulations supporting the inward mobility of foreign artists and cultural professionals in your country (e.g. double taxation avoidance agreements, special work permits and health insurance, subsidies to cover living expenses, etc.)
Please indicate if the following operational programmes have been developed or supported/funded by public authorities during the last 4 years: 
Information resources or training services providing practical guidance to facilitate the mobility of cultural professionals (e.g. Internet platforms)
Infrastructure (e.g. arts residencies, cultural institutes, etc.) having a mandate to promote the diversity of cultural expressions and hosting a large number of foreign artists, notably from developing countries
Major cultural events (e.g. cultural seasons, festivals, cultural industries markets, etc.) having a mandate to promote the diversity of cultural expressions and hosting a large number of foreign artists, notably from developing countries
Please indicate if the following mobility funds (e.g. scholarships, travel grants, etc.) have been managed or supported by public authorities during the last 4 years: 
Public funds supporting the outward mobility of national or resident artists and other cultural professionals
Public funds supporting the inward mobility of foreign artists and other cultural professionals, notably from developing countries
Public funds specifically supporting the mobility of artists and other cultural professionals from or between developing countries, including through North-South-South and South-South cooperation
Relevant Policies and Measures: 

Estonian Culture in the World

Name of agency responsible for the implementation of the policy/measure: 
Estonian Ministry of Culture
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
For Estonia, it is important in general that Estonian culture is visible and active on the international level, both in form of cultural exchange and co-operation as well as cultural export. One of the tasks of the Estonian Ministry of Culture is to promote the internationalization of Estonian culture, to develop cultural relations and diplomacy between countries facilitating this with different measures. The aim of this specific application round is to contribute to the introduction of Estonia, the promotion of cultural diplomacy and the internationalization of Estonian culture outside Estonia by supporting high-level cultural events related to music, literature, performing arts, film, visual arts, museums, folk culture, architecture, design and Estonian communities abroad. Support can be asked for participation in high-level cultural events important for Estonia and major international events with an Estonian focus, organization of high-level cultural projects, including concerts, performances, exhibitions, etc., organization of and participation in Estonian culture days and Estonian festivals abroad; participation in international networking events, residencies abroad, showcase festivals, and other events promoting the internationalization of Estonian culture. Support cannot be asked for participation in workshops or other self-improvement activities and for the production of works. Legal persons registered in Estonia, state or local government agencies, and self-employed persons may apply for the support. The maximum share of the grant in the eligible costs of the project is 80%. When calculating the share of support, the total contribution of the state is taken into account. At least 20% of the eligible costs of the project must be covered by non-repayable or non-refundable grants from the state, local authorities or other European Union institutions or funds. The minimum and maximum limits apply to the support allocated from the application round (the minimum limit for a project in 2020 is 4,000 euros and the upper limit is 60,000 euros).
Does it specifically target young people?: 
NO
Does the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) support the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
NO
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
The programme has helped various Estonian creative persons, cultural groups and creative enterprises enter the international stage.
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
2016: 770 000 USD (650 000 EUR) 2017: 770 000 USD (650 000 EUR) 2018: 770 000 USD (650 000 EUR) 2019: 770 000 USD (650 000 EUR)
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
YES
If yes, what are the main conclusions/recommendations?: 
More attention needs to be paid to assessing the impact of the measure on its purpose.

Flow of Cultural Goods and Services

Export strategies or measures to support the distribution of cultural goods and services outside your country exist for the following cultural domains: 
Cinema/Audiovisual arts
Design
Media Arts
Music
Publishing
Visual Arts
Performing Arts
Cultural management
Your country has granted or benefited from preferential treatment* to support a balanced exchange of cultural goods and services in the last 4 years: 
YES, I have granted preferential treatment
If YES, please provide up to 2 examples: 
Within the framework of the Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid Development Plan, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs continued to support projects in Georgia, Moldova, Armenia, Belarus, etc. During the period 2016-2019 there were total of 8 cultural or culture-related projects supported with 373 985 USD (316 293 EUR).
Your country has provided or benefited in the last 4 years from Aid for Trade support, a form of Official Development Assistance (ODA), that helped to build capacities to formulate trade policies, participate in negotiating and implementing agreements that provide a special status to cultural goods and services: 
-
If YES, please provide up to 2 examples: 
-
Relevant Policies and Measures: 
-

Tratados y acuerdos

Multilateral or bilateral trade and/or investment agreements providing a special status to cultural goods and/or services have been signed during the last 4 years or are under negociation: 
NO
Multilateral or bilateral agreements including specific provisions providing a special status to cultural goods and services and digital products in the field of e-commerce have been signed during the last 4 years or are under negotiation: 
NO
Multilateral or bilateral agreements, declarations and/or strategies on relevant policy issues for the diversity of cultural expressions (e.g. education, digital, intellectual property, sustainable development, gender equality, etc.) signed or amended to take into account the objectives or principles of the Convention during the last 4 years: 
NO
Relevant Policies and Measures: 
-

Goal 3 - Integrate Culture in Sustainable Development Frameworks

National Sustainable Development Policies & Plans

National sustainable development plans and strategies recognize the strategic role of: 
Culture (in general)
Creativity and innovation
Cultural and creative industries
Please rate from 1 to 4 the type of outcomes expected by the inclusion of culture in national sustainable development plans and strategies 1 most often expected outcome 4 least expected outcome): 
Economic (e.g. employment, trade, intellectual property, cultural and creative industries, rural and territorial development): 
2
Social (e.g. social cohesion and inclusion, inequality and poverty reduction, values and identity, vulnerable and minority groups, empowerment and human capital, education): 
1
Environmental (e.g. natural resources, reducing environmental impact of cultural industries and practices): 
3
Cultural (e.g. cultural infrastructure, participation and access to culture, innovation, artists support): 
1
Public cultural bodies and agencies responsible for culture or creative industries are involved in the design and implementation of sustainable development policies and plans (i.e. participate in coordination mechanisms such as joint planning committees): 
YES
Cultural industry-led regeneration initiatives and projects at the regional, urban and/or rural levels have been implemented in the last 4 years: 
YES
Policies and measures facilitate participation in cultural life and access to diverse cultural facilities and expressions, notably addressing the needs of disadvantaged or vulnerable groups (e.g. via reduced entrance fees; audience development, arts education and audiences awareness-raising): 
YES
Latest data on cultural participation rates by socio demographic variables (sex/age groups/rural- urban/income levels/education levels): 
Statistics Estonia conducts regular surveys about cultural participation. Data is available for 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2020 https://www.stat.ee/en/find-statistics/methodology-and-quality/esms-metadata/40422 Please see detailed statistics from https://andmed.stat.ee/et/stat - section Social Life (Sotsiaalelu), sub-section Culture (Kultuur), topic Participation in Cultural Life (Kultuurielus osalemine)
Relevant Policies and Measures: 
-

International Cooperation for Sustainable Development

Your country has contributed to or benefited from the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) during the last 4 years: 
YES, my country has contributed to the IFCD
Development cooperation strategies, including South-South cooperation strategies, recognize the strategic role of creativity and diverse cultural expressions: 
NO
If YES, please provide the name(s) of the strategy and year(s) of adoption: 
-
Your country manages multi- and/or bilateral technical assistance and capacity building cooperation programmes supporting: 
Cultural policy development and implementation in developing countries
Medium, small or micro-enterprise development of creative industries and markets in developing countries
Artists and cultural professionals in developing countries
Value of the total national contribution to the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (in USD): 
1,266.00
2019
Relevant Policies and Measures: 

Bi- and multilateral cultural co-operation agreements and programmes

Name of agency responsible for the implementation of the policy/measure: 
Estonian Ministry of Culture
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
Estonia has bilateral cultural cooperation agreements and joint programmes with more than 50 countries from all over the world, more than half of these have been concluded with non-EU countries. Usually, bilateral agreement shall remain in force indefenitely or for a certain period of time and thereafter shall be automatically renewed for successive period of equal duration, unless either of the Parties should express its opposition thereto, which must be notified in writing through diplomatic channels. In addition to a bilateral agreement, Parties may agree upon and in accordance with the agreement a separate cultural cooperation programme for a certain time period. Such programmes can be prolonged by means of exchange of corresponding notes sent through diplomatic channels, unless either of the Parties should express its opposition. Activities under cultural cooperation agreements/programmes are supported by both parties to the agreement/programme in finalizing projects within the agreement/programme (for example, usual practice is that the host country covers the costs of receiving guests and the visiting country takes care of the travel expenses). Within the frames of active bilateral cooperation agreements and programmes, different NGOs and private or state cooperation partners in the status of legal person registered in Estonia can apply for the support from the Estonian Ministry of Culture. Grants from the Ministry of Culture are combined with other Estonian sources of financing. Within priority partner countries for development cooperation for Estonia (Afghanistan, Moldova, Georgia, Ukraine and Belorussia), four are involved in bilateral cultural cooperation agreements and joint programmes as well: Georgia (bilateral cultural agreement was ratified 28.10.2004, latest bilateral cultural programme for the years 2017-2020 was signed 06.03.2017), Moldova (bilateral cultural agreement was ratified 03.04.1996/10.12.2011), Ukraine (cultural agreement was ratified 01.04.1996, latest cultural programme for the years 2017-2021 was signed 03.04.2017), Belarus (cultural agreement was signed 24.08.2004).
Does it specifically target young people?: 
NO
Does the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) support the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
NO
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
Development of cooperation in the field of culture by supporting (financially as well as the exchange of know-how) bilateral cooperation between creative persons and cultural institutions. Creation of a favourable environment for international cooperation, including exchange of know-how and activated cultural exchange. On a wider scale, enhancement of mutual understanding and friendship between the countries.
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
Each year, certain amount of financial resources are available in the yearly budget of the Estonian Ministry of Culture to support bi- and multilateral cooperation (for 2016-2019 in total around 750 000 EUR=~894 000 USD, average annually around 187 000 EUR=~222 000 USD).
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
YES
If yes, what are the main conclusions/recommendations?: 
Before prolonging the programme for the next period, both Parties evaluate the projects carried out within the previous period as well as the necessity to continue with the programme. So far, the general conclusion has been to continue with the agreements and programmes which have been active, effective and/or have been signed with our priority countries in international as well as developing cooperation. More attention needs to be paid to assessing the impact of the measure on its purpose.

Goal 4 - Promote Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

Gender Equality

Ministries, governmental agencies and/or parliamentary bodies in charge of gender equality: 
Exist and are relevant for artists and cultural professionals
Policies and measures to support the full participation of women in cultural life have been implemented during the last 4 years: 
YES
Policies and measures have been adopted to support the recognition and advancement of women as artists, cultural professionals and/or creative entrepreneurs, (e.g. ensure equal pay for equal work or equal access to funding, coaching or mentoring schemes, anti-discrimination measures, etc.): 
YES
Data is regularly collected and disseminated to monitor: 
-
Relevant Policies and Measures: 
-

Libertad artística

The constitution and/or national regulatory frameworks formally acknowledge: 
The right of artists to create without censorship or intimidation
The right of artists to disseminate and/or perform their artistic works
The right for all citizens to freely enjoy artistic works both in public and in private
The right for all citizens to take part in cultural life without restrictions
Independent bodies are established to receive complaints and/or monitor violations and restrictions to artistic freedom: 
NO
Initiatives to protect artists at risk or in exile have been developed or supported by public authorities during the last 4 years (e.g. providing safe houses, guidance and training, etc.): 
NO
Measures and initiatives intended to ensure transparent decision-making on government funding/ state grants and awards for artists exist (e.g. through independent committees, etc.): 
YES
Social protection measures that take the professional status of artists into account have been adopted or revised in the last 4 years (e.g. health insurance, retirement schemes, unemployment benefits, etc.): 
YES
Economic measures that take the status of artists into account have been adopted or revised in the last 4 years (e.g. collective agreements, income tax and other regulatory frameworks, etc.): 
YES
Relevant Policies and Measures: 

Artists' and writers' wage

Name of agency responsible for the implementation of the policy/measure: 
Estonian Ministry of Culture
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
Starting from 2016, the pilot project of artists' and writers' wage was launched which enables freelancer writers and artists at their creative peak to dedicate themselves to creative work for a longer period of time. The funds for paying the wages are allocated by the Ministry of Culture as a grant to the corresponding artistic association. The amount of one wage is equal to the average monthly gross income inclusive of all taxes of the year before the previous year. The artistic association will pay the wages for three years to persons chosen based on a public competition. The difference of the wage compared to a grant for creative work, apart from its long-term nature, are the accompanying social securities and greater stability arising from them. The fields of art and literature were chosen because in these fields large amount of creative persons are engaged in liberal professions. The creative processes of the named fields are not as widely supported by the state through institutional supports.
Does it specifically target young people?: 
NO
Does the International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD) support the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
NO
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
Since 2016, 5 artists and 5 writers are selected who will receive wages for three years. As of 2020, in total 13 artists and 13 writers have received wages.
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
2016: 190 794 USD (161 362 EUR) 2017: 323 498 USD (273 594 EUR) 2018: 478 640 USD (404 804 EUR) 2019: 584 664 USD (494 472 EUR)
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
NO
Partner(s) engaged in the implementation of the measure: 
Name of partner: 
Estonian Artists' Association
Type of entity: 
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
Name of partner: 
Estonian Writers' Union
Type of entity: 
Civil Society Organization (CSO)

Measures and Initiatives reported by Civil Society Organizations

Describe how the CSO form has been used to promote collaboration with CSOs in the preparation of this report, including the distribution of the form and the modalities of collection and analysis of the information received. Please indicate the percentage of measures and initiatives received that have been considered as relevant by the Party and included in the QPR.: 
During the preparation process of the report, Ministry of Culture and Estonian National Commission for UNESCO gathered information and consulted with the stakeholders online without using the Civil Society Form. NGO Mondo, which is an Estonian civil society organization established in 2007 and works in three different fields (development cooperation, humanitarian aid and global citizenship education) with the main activities focused on improving health, education, and livelihood for the most vulnerable communities in the world, reported one measure: MONDO DIGITAL COMPETENCIES PROGRAM (Implemented in Syria, Uganda, Lebanon, and Jordan) The general aim of MDCP is to increase the level of digital competences of refugee youth (aged 15-24) in order to improve their ability to use digital tools and online information to solve everyday problems as well as achieve their (personal and professional) goals. MDCP has been developed for a refugee or emergency context in accordance to the European Digital Competence Framework (“DigComp”) and its five key components.The program has been composed with input from experts from Tallinn University’s School of Digital Technologies. The program will allow participants to enhance the following skills: 1) Information and data literacy – understanding one’s information needs and finding relevant digital content; storing, managing, and organising content. 2) Communication and collaboration – communicating and collaborating digitally and managing one’s digital identity and reputation. 3) Digital content creation – creating and editing digital content. 4) Safety – protecting personal data and privacy in digital environments. 5) Problem solving – identifying and resolving problems, using digital tools to innovate. UNESCO Chair on Applied Studies of Intangible Cultural Heritage at the University of Tartu reported, that master's degree program "Folkloristics and Applied Heritage Studies" teaches a subject called "Heritage and Cultural Policies". This covers, inter alia, the 2005 Convention. Students will learn what this convention is about and will also look at it comparatively in the context of other cultural heritage conventions.
GOAL 1 - Support sustainable systems of governance for culture: 
-
GOAL 2 - Achieve a balanced flow of cultural goods and services and increase the mobility of artists and cultural professionals: 
-
GOAL 3 - Integrate culture in sustainable development frameworks: 
-
GOAL 4 - Promote human rights and fundamental freedoms: 
-
On the basis of the analysis of the responses provided through the CSO form, present up to ten main priorities of CSOs to implement the Convention over the next four years.: 
-

Emerging Transversal Issues

Relevant Policies and Measures: 
-

Challenges and Achievements

Describe the main results achieved to implement the Convention (at least one major achievement in one of the four goals): 
Estonia has been actively engaged in implementing the Convention since its entry into force. Despite the fact that there is no separate strategy or action plan for its implementation, the main principles of the Convention are impeded into different policies and measures, which adequately safeguard and promote cultural diversity. Cultural and creative sectors and the whole society are undergoing transformation, which requires a rapid response and smart adaption. As a result of implementing policies and measures, the total contribution of the cultural and creative sectors to the GDP is rising and socio-economic effect of the sector is becoming more visible. As a member state of EU, Estonia follows the Work Plans for Culture where as a matter of principle EU pursues a proactive stance regarding the implementation and ratification of the Convention in policy dialogue with partner countries, emerging partners and third countries across the board. For example, Estonia is welcoming the fact of Joint Communication from the Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy: Towards an EU strategy for international cultural relations. Estonia has actively participated in the discussion of its implementation measures.
Describe the main challenges encountered to implement the Convention and the main solutions found or envisaged to overcome them: 
There are no separate financial and human resources allocated for the implementation of the Convention as well as cultural and creative sectors in Estonia do not benefit from the International Fund on cultural diversity (IFCD). Therefore, instead of proactive work, the implementation of the Convention is matched with all relevant activities and measures. As a result, it leads to a rather complicated reporting process. It is difficult to assess and measure the evolution of the diversity of cultural expressions in Estonia because of the lack of relevant statistical matrix. Awareness raising and advocacy as regards the Convention is essential, but the core principles and concepts of the Convention (i.e. diversity, cultural expressions) are better understood in the context of national policies and strategies. There is a need for capacity building in terms of making the implementation of the Convention through national policies more visible. In this matter support from EU and civil society is in high demand as the participation of the civil society in the implementation and monitoring of the Convention is vital.
Describe the steps planned in the next four years to further implement the Convention and the priority areas identified for future policy action based on the conclusions of the current reporting process: 
As the main policies and measures including the core principles of the Convention will last up to 2020, Estonia has been focused on achieving the targets and goals set forth in these policies and yearly action plans of the Estonian Ministry of Culture. Preparation of 2020+ policies and development plans have started in 2019 involving cultural and creative sectors representatives, civil society organizations, policy makers from other ministries, etc and during this process the core principles of the Convention have been covered rather well.

Annexes

Please upload relevant documents (law, policy, agreement, regulation, strategy, etc.), studies and statistics in PDF format related to the implementation of the 4 goals and the 11 areas of monitoring of the Convention in your country. The documents should have been produced during the reporting period covered by this periodic report. Please provide the title and a description of the main content of the document in English or French.: 
AttachmentSize
File Employment data255.54 KB
File Culture budget23.16 KB
File Cultural participation 201715.09 KB

Submission

Designated official signing the report: 
Title: 
Ms.
First name: 
Anu-Maaja
Family name: 
Pallok
Organization: 
Ministry of Culture
Position: 
Adviser (Cultural and Creative Industries)
Date of submission: 
2021
Electronic Signature: