Culture and Gender Equality – Study

Unión Europea
European Commission
European Expert Network on Culture & Audiovisual
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
The EU Council Work Plan for Culture 2019-2022 identified gender equality as one of six sectoral priorities for EU action, and invited the Commission to produce a study and convene a Working Group of Member State experts under the Open Method of Coordination (described separately). The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review and prepare a study identifying the situation of women artists and professionals in the cultural and creative sectors (CCSs), and to map the existing international recommendations aiming to achieve gender equality in these sectors. The study summarises the main policy developments and recommendations made regarding cultural and creative sectors (CCSs), and gender by bodies such as the EU, the Council of Europe, UNESCO, and the ILO. Its main focus is on understanding the current state of affairs concerning women in the CCSs, the gender gaps at work, and the underlying drivers of those gender gaps. Available quantitative data has been mapped for the different sub-sectors within the CCSs, and has been combined with information from qualitative literature and expert interviews to establish the state of affairs regarding women in these sectors, along with the drivers leading to this state of affairs. The report provides an overall analysis of gender gaps in the CCSs as a whole and presents examples of the types of initiatives which have been implemented to address these gender gaps. The report culminates in a series of conclusions and recommendations for the reflection of the OMC Working Group. In September 2020, an updated version of this study was published, to include the audiovisual and radio sectors.
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
The study was disseminated widely and promoted by the Commission in discussions with the European Parliament and UNESCO (2005 Convention 8th Conference of Parties). Key findings are set out below: Gender inequality in the cultural and creative sectors Intersectional gender gaps persist in almost all cultural and creative sectors, with individuals experiencing discrimination based on their gender, other personal characteristics and identities. The available data shows that female artists and cultural professionals across the EU typically have less access to creation and production resources, are paid much less than men and are underrepresented in leadership and other decision-making positions, as well as on the art market. Women are frequently victims of sexism, gender stereotypes and sexual harassment. In France, for example, women constitute 52% of all Performing Arts students. However, they comprise only 31% of practicing artists, 11% of programmed artists and hold only 18% of managerial positions in these sectors. Only 4 - 12% of art awards have been granted to women since 1980. Furthermore, 23% of projects supported by public funds in France are led by women. Women with the same competences or job earn on average 27% less than male artists (source: ‘Inégalités entre les femmes et les hommes dans les arts et la culture’, Haut Conseil à l’Égalité, 2018). Music: In Europe, women represent 20% or less of registered composers and songwriters and, on average, earn 30% less than men working within the sector (source: ‘Women in Music’, 2019). Theatre: In Ireland, women are underrepresented in every theatre role studied, with the exception of costume designers. Only 28% of script authors, 9% of sound designers and 37% of directors are women (source: Research commissioned by #WakingtheFeminists, 2017). Circus: In Spain, the employment of women is notably reduced in companies that are economically stronger. 80% of artists on stage are men, versus 20% women. Show directors are nearly all men (source: Research by the Associació de Professionals de Circ de Catalunya (APCC), 2019). Visual arts: Artwork by female artists represented only 3 - 5% of major permanent collections in Europe and the United States (USA) in 2017. At the same time, only 13.7% of living artists represented by galleries in Europe and North America are women (source: National Museum of Women in the Arts (USA), 2019). More data is needed regarding gender inequalities faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQI) persons across the EU.
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
Partner(s) engaged in the implementation of the measure: 
Name of partnerType of entity
European Expert Network on Culture and Audiovisual
Private Sector
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
If yes, what are the main conclusions/recommendations?: 
The study itself included the following recommendations, addressed to policymakers and practioners in the CCS: - set up initiatives and practices to monitor the sector more closely. In order to design useful policies, this should be a first step. In pursuit of this aim, collaboration with other institutes active on this issue could be a sensible first step. Organisations such as the European Network of Observatories in the Arts and Cultural Education (ENO), sectoral organisations such as the ACE, and other sectoral networks, associations, and institutes across Europe could be brought together to share their insights and their data regarding the position of women in the CCSs. This could be combined with the information which is collected by other EU agencies such as EACEA, Eurofound, and EIGE. - think in terms of two tracks: a longer term and short term approach: o One the one hand, a long-term approach can be taken which seeks to adjust the social norms and values, and thereby, the expectations regarding women in European societies. On the other hand, more short term and instrumental approaches can be taken which address and mitigate the positions of women in this sector at the moment and in the near future. - promote awareness (which can be achieved through a variety of practices), and to commit to making gender gaps more visible within the CCSs and in society more broadly by reporting on the sector. Working to improve the representation of women in different types of occupations across the CCSs should also be addressed in this context, and there are a variety of different initiatives and practices available to help do so. - better support parents working in the CCSs, and mothers in particular. Hiring and recruitment practices, as well as other sectoral working practices could be examined from within the sector, to facilitate women wishing to or already working in the CCS - the European Commission should continue to act as a facilitator, to bring together existing data and information which is currently collected in different Member States and sub-sectors of the CCSs. Based on which information is collected and that which is not, countries, sectoral organisations, and authorities can come together to consider how to improve the data collection for the CCSs. In building better insights concerning the state of affairs in the CCSs, EU and national authorities are in a better position to take tailored, relevant action to address gender gaps in these sectors
Objetivo(s) de la Convención 2005 de la UNESCO
Cultural Domain(s)
Prioridades transversales